North Beach Gallipoli 1915

This commemorative publication assists visitors to the Anzac Commemorative Site to better understand the significance of the area. 

Foreword

The new Anzac Commemorative Site at North Beach, Gallipoli, was dedicated at the Dawn Service on 25 April 2000 in the presence of the Prime Ministers of Australia and New Zealand. The North Beach area, and the ranges beyond leading up to the heights of Chunuk Bair, was one of the storm centres of an area that became known as 'Anzac' from the landing in April until the evacuation of December 1915. Australians came ashore here at dawn on 25 April; New Zealanders developed and held the trenches of Walker's Ridge and Russell's Top above the beach; Maori soldiers helped build the famous 'Long Sap' which ran from Anzac Cove to the New Zealand positions at the Outposts above Fisherman's Hut; Australian, British, Indian and Gurkha soldiers left from here at the start of the 'August offensive' on their night march of 6-7 August; through the 'Long Sap' streamed the wounded from that offensive heading for the medical posts of Anzac Cove; in September and November 1915 the area was developed as the principal supply base for the coming winter; and from the piers and embarkation points of North Beach thousands of men left Anzac at the evacuation.

This booklet has been produced to assist visitors to the Anzac Commemorative Site to understand more fully the significance of the area. In particular, the sample of the drawings of Major Leslie Hore reproduced here help to convey the impact which the sights and scenes of this part of Anzac made on one thoughtful and sensitive soldier. Hore's work, together with an article specially prepared for this booklet by Dr Richard Reid, historian, Department of Veterans' Affairs, brings to life the reality of the Gallipoli campaign in a way that has not previously been attempted. Hore's art has lain largely unseen in the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales for over 80 years and is reproduced here with permission of the State Library of New South Wales.

It is fitting that this Anzac commemorative booklet should first be published in 2001, so closely are the events of the Gallipoli campaign linked with our early development as a nation. With the agreement of the National Council for the Centenary of Federation, it serves therefore to further promote Australia's Centenary of Federation.

AVM G.J.J. Beck AO (Retd)
Director
Office of Australian War Graves
Department of Veterans' Affairs

Page 1

From that day it was the Sphinx
North Beach, Gallipoli
April-December 1915

One of the talents of Australia's official World War I historian was the ability to describe landscape. Charles Bean knew that few Australians in the 1920s who read his long and careful account of the landing on Gallipoli could afford to visit that shore made sacred by the suffering and death of their sons and husbands. His readers' understanding, therefore, of the daunting terrain of Anzac would be shaped and coloured by his words. And of all the places where Australians reached the beach at dawn on 25 April, none presented a greater challenge than the cliffs of North Beach. Bean wrote:

In front of them a small area of rough ground was shut in by bare yellow precipices rising at 300 yards from the beach. The central cliffs, their gravel worn and fluted by runnels, stood sheer to 400 feet, a few tufts of scrub catching a precarious foothold on their face. The ridge led down to the beach in only two places—at either end of the semicircle—by the steep slopes of Plugge's [Plateau] on the right, and by a tortuous spur (afterwards known as Walker's Ridge) on the left. Between the two, exactly in the middle of the semicircle of cliffs, there had once been a third spur, but the weather had eaten it away. Its bare gravel face stood out, for all the world like that of a Sphinx, sheer above the middle of the valley … To the Australians from that day it was the 'Sphinx'.

[C E W Bean, The Story of Anzac, Vol 1, Sydney, 1921, pp.267-268]

The first ashore on North Beach near the Sphinx were two companies of the 11th Battalion. Landing just below Plugge's Plateau, they soon began the arduous climb under fire towards the Turkish positions on the top of that promontory. Roughly half an hour after the initial landing, men of the 9th, 10th and 11th Battalions broke out on to Plugge's. It was the first major feature on Gallipoli to fall into Australian hands.

Page 2

Shortly after the first landings of the 11th Battalion, Australians of the second wave, men of the 12th Battalion, landed at North Beach to make their way off the beach to the main plateau of Russell's Top. Some tackled the heights of the Sphinx, while others worked along Walker's Ridge. Coming in to North Beach with the 12th Battalion was the only medical unit to land with the first waves—the 3rd Field Ambulance from Western Australia. During the landing the ambulancemen lost three men killed and another 14 were wounded. Private Otto Kirby was one of the wounded:

Then came the awful time. We were pulled some of the way by a pinnace but had to row a long way. The poor sailor that was rowing just in front of me was shot through the head … We got within ten yards of the beach when we began to scramble out of the boat. I fell over the starboard side and made a rush through the water. I fell a couple of times and regained my feet again. I scrambled ashore and got about three yards ashore when I felt an awful smack on my side and I knew that I was shot. I crawled for about five yards and found I could not go any further. So as the bullets were whistling around us I put a few stones around my head and laid there for about 15 minutes. The boys had chased [the Turks] back again by this time so I crawled to my mates and they fixed me up.

[Private Otto Kirby, quoted in Tom Curran, Not Only A Hero—An Illustrated Life of Simpson, the Man with the Donkey, Aspley, Queensland, 1998, p.30]

To the north along North Beach there occurred one of the tragedies of the landing—the virtual annihilation of part of A Company, 7th Battalion. The boats carrying these men ashore from the transport Galeka were fired upon by an enemy machine gun from the vicinity of what was later called by the Australians, the Fisherman's Hut. Of 140 men in these boats only 35 reached the beach safely. Many were killed and others seriously wounded. For the whole of 25 April and into 26 April, efforts were made under fire to rescue the survivors.

Page 2

Shortly after the first landings of the 11th Battalion, Australians of the second wave, men of the 12th Battalion, landed at North Beach to make their way off the beach to the main plateau of Russell's Top. Some tackled the heights of the Sphinx, while others worked along Walker's Ridge. Coming in to North Beach with the 12th Battalion was the only medical unit to land with the first waves—the 3rd Field Ambulance from Western Australia. During the landing the ambulancemen lost three men killed and another 14 were wounded. Private Otto Kirby was one of the wounded:

Then came the awful time. We were pulled some of the way by a pinnace but had to row a long way. The poor sailor that was rowing just in front of me was shot through the head … We got within ten yards of the beach when we began to scramble out of the boat. I fell over the starboard side and made a rush through the water. I fell a couple of times and regained my feet again. I scrambled ashore and got about three yards ashore when I felt an awful smack on my side and I knew that I was shot. I crawled for about five yards and found I could not go any further. So as the bullets were whistling around us I put a few stones around my head and laid there for about 15 minutes. The boys had chased [the Turks] back again by this time so I crawled to my mates and they fixed me up.

[Private Otto Kirby, quoted in Tom Curran, Not Only A Hero—An Illustrated Life of Simpson, the Man with the Donkey, Aspley, Queensland, 1998, p.30]

To the north along North Beach there occurred one of the tragedies of the landing—the virtual annihilation of part of A Company, 7th Battalion. The boats carrying these men ashore from the transport Galeka were fired upon by an enemy machine gun from the vicinity of what was later called by the Australians, the Fisherman's Hut. Of 140 men in these boats only 35 reached the beach safely. Many were killed and others seriously wounded. For the whole of 25 April and into 26 April, efforts were made under fire to rescue the survivors.

Page 3

This rush from the beach was made under heavy Turkish fire and there were many casualties. The wounded and dying were carried back to a medical-aid post at North Beach set up by the 3rd Field Ambulance. Captain Douglas McWhae remembered the scene:

There were great numbers of wounded whom it took all morning to attend to and get away … The Red Cross flag was put up after a time. The three sections were going for all they were worth … they had iodine and field dressings; all splints were improvised using rifles and bushes. They were terrible wounds to deal with.

[Captain Douglas McWhae, quoted in Tom Curran, Not Only A Hero—An Illustrated Life of Simpson, the Man with the Donkey, Aspley, Queensland, 1998, pp.30-31]

The field ambulance stretcher-bearers worked all morning along the beach and up along the cliffs to collect the wounded and bring them to the North Beach dressing station. Among the men of the 3rd Field Ambulance working at North Beach that morning was one who eventually became a legend in Australia—Private John Simpson Kirkpatrick, 'the man with the donkey'.

page 4

It took the Anzacs—the Australians and New Zealanders—about a week to consolidate their positions on Gallipoli within an area that became known as 'Old Anzac'. The northern flank of 'Old Anzac' ran inland along Walker's Ridge above North Beach. Further north were two outposts at the end of rugged spurs running down from the main plateau—No 1 and No 2 Outposts. These were established and garrisoned by New Zealand units. The route to the Outposts ran along the beach which, during the early months at Gallipoli, was exposed to Turkish sniper fire. To protect men coming and going to the Outposts a deep trench three kilometres long—the 'Long Sap' or 'Big Sap'—was dug all the way behind North Beach from the northern end of Anzac Cove.

Page 5

One of the units stationed at the Outposts for most of their time on Gallipoli was the Maori Contingent of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. One of the early tasks given to the Maoris was to assist with the widening of the 'Great Sap'. This needed to be done in order that both men and mules could pass in the trench and that supplies could be built up at the bottom of the valleys leading up into the ranges. The early part of the trench lay through sand and had been easy to widen and excavate. Throughout the July nights of 1915, the Maoris, along with men from the 4th Australian Brigade, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles and the Australian Light Horse, toiled at the harder clay soils inland of the beach.

The Maoris were regarded as the best workers:

Man is naturally a lazy animal. When men work hard, there is always some incentive. The Maori soldier, picked man that he was, wished to justify before the world that his claim to a front-line soldier was not an idle one. Many a proud rangatira served his country in the ranks, an example to some of his pakeha brothers. Their discipline was superb and when their turn came for a working party, the long handled shovels swung without ceasing until, just before the dawn, the signal came to pack up and get home.

[Major Fred Waite, The New Zealanders at Gallipoli, Auckland, 1921, p.19]

During May and June, New Zealand scouts set out from the outposts to reconnoitre the ranges and the Turkish positions. Using knowledge gained from these expeditions, the senior commanders at Gallipoli planned a major offensive - the 'August offensive' - to be mounted up into the valleys and hills beyond North Beach towards the lightly defended heights of Chunuk Bair. This assault on Chunuk Bair, it was hoped, would break the stalemate at Gallipoli and allow the Anzacs to break out eventually across the peninsula, something they had been unable to do at the landings of 25 April.

Page 6

For the Australians, the August offensive began on the afternoon of 6 August 1915 with a major diversionary attack by the 1st Division at Lone Pine. After nightfall, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles attacked from the outposts at North Beach up into the hills. Their job was to drive the Turks from their positions and clear the way for the New Zealand infantry battalions to push on up to the taking of Chunuk Bair. Yet another attack—this one to be pressed home by Australian units—was to go in to the north of Chunuk Bair, aimed at the capture of Hill 971. At 9.30 pm on 6 August 1915, General John Monash's 4th Brigade, in company with the British 40th Brigade and the 29th Indian Brigade, left a camp site beneath the Sphinx and made their way along North Beach. Monash described the opening of this night march:

My column swept out of Reserve Gully into black darkness for its two mile march [3.2km] northwards along the beach into enemy territory. It was like walking out on a stormy winter's night from a warm cosy home into a hail, thunder and lightening storm. We had not gone half a mile [0.8km] when the black tangle of hills between the beach road and the main thoroughfare became alive with flashes of musketry, and the bursting of star shell, and the cheers of our men [the New Zealanders] as they swept in to drive the enemy from the flanks of the march.

[F M Cutlack (ed), War Letters of General Monash, Sydney, 1934, p.61]

Despite the best efforts of the Anzacs and British troops, a determined Turkish defence defeated the August offensive. Casualties were high and the wounded lay out in the valleys and on the slopes leading to Chunuk Bair.

Page 7

Many died in those ranges, despite the struggles of the Australian and New Zealand stretcher-bearers to bring them down through the steep gullies to aid-posts near the beach. Corporal William Rusden, a New Zealander, described his narrow escape from the dangers of the evacuation route from Chunuk Bair:

Got down about 20 ft and then stood up just in time to get a lump of shrapnel in my left side. That was the end of things for a while but eventually I rolled down the hill to a bit of a sap where I struck a poor beggar shot through the thigh. He was not able to stand up but with my feeble assistance he got up at last, just in time to get another dose. He got hit in the hand and in the knee, though mine was a mere scratch. And at last we got to the gully, down which I made my way with scores of the wounded to the beach. Most of the way down we were being fired at by snipers but barring a graze on my hip I escaped scot-free, others, however, not being so lucky for I saw two stretcher bearers and their burden all fall to snipers in about 20 seconds.

When I reached the beach there were hundreds waiting to be attended to and all the time the bullets and shrapnel were flying about. Many were hit but by this time I didn't care whether they got me or not.

Corporal William Rusden, New Zealand Expeditionary Force, Letter, 3DRL/2287, Australian War Memorial]

At the beach, a small jetty was constructed called Embarkation Pier. From here, it was intended to take the wounded off to nearby hospital ships, but unfortunately the Turks saw that the pier was also being used to bring in military supplies, and shelled it. From the pier, hundreds of walking wounded struggled down the beach to the entrance to the 'Long Sap' and so made their way to the evacuation point at Anzac Cove.

The hoped-for breakthrough of the Turkish lines during the August offensive never materialised, but the area of the Anzac position had been greatly enlarged and the enemy had been driven back far enough to make most parts of North Beach comparatively safe from sniper fire. The line of this enlarged position extended from Walker's Ridge above North Beach north-east along the tops of the valleys leading towards Chunuk Bair. From there the line swung north-west towards Hill 60 and Suvla Bay.

Page 8

One Australian soldier who knew this area well was Major Leslie Fraser Standish Hore, 8th Light Horse Regiment.

Hore arrived on Gallipoli in late May 1915 and went with his unit into the trenches of Walker's Ridge above North Beach. From that moment until he left Anzac on 18 December 1915, Hore recorded his sense of Gallipoli not in words but in a series of small drawings using at times pencil, ink, wash and watercolour. As he gazed around him what struck Hore most was the magnificence and subtlety of the landscapes and seascapes of the peninsula which formed the backdrop to the horror of battle created by men. Sunset in war, as in peace, was always a time of quietness and reflection and in his drawing 'Tea on the Terrace' Hore captured something of the normality of life in these abnormal surroundings. Another Australian soldier who responded to this same scene was Sergeant Cyril Lawrence, 2nd Field Company, Royal Australian Engineers:

There was a magnificent sunset. They all are here—just simply glorious. I do wish I had a decent photo or something of them. Away about fifteen miles off our position are two mountainous islands, Imbros and Samothrace. The sun goes below the sea's horizon just off the northern end of the latter throwing them both, great jagged peaks, into silhouette on a crimson background. The sea is nearly always like oil and as the crimson path streams across the water the store ships, hospital ships, torpedo boats and mine sweepers stand out jet black. God, it's just magnificent.

[Sir Ronald East (ed), The Gallipoli Diaries of Sergeant Lawrence of the Australian Engineers, Melbourne, 1983, entry 27 June 1915, p.35]

Page 9

One unit which Hore, and all those stationed on Anzac, knew well was the Indian Mule Cart Transport. The role of the Indians and their British officers was to transport supplies of food, ammunition, water and other essential stores from the landing beaches to scattered dumps and depots. Uncoupled from their carts, the mules were also used in trains to take supplies up into hills to brigade dumps closer to the front line trenches. The unit initially established itself at Anzac Cove but, because of the danger to the mules from the regular Turkish shelling, in June they moved to Mule Gully beneath the Sphinx at North Beach. Here their commanding officer, Captain H M Walker, met Major Hore and described him as a 'clever artist' who produced 'admirable sketches drawn in the trenches'. Hore produced two sketches of the Indian position in Mule Gully where Captain Walker had his dug-out.

The mess dug-out, in which I also slept, was made very comfortable and quite proof against splinters and bullets … The earth was dug to a depth of about three feet: walls were made of grain-bags filled with sand, a large biscuit-box, with top and bottom knocked off, forming a good window on the west side.

A roof was put on, strips of wood collected from the wreckage of a boat being used as rafters, with a cart tarpaulin stretched over them, and two inches of earth on top. The whole south side above the ground line was left open to give a splendid view across the position to Ari Burnu Point, and Imbros Island behind. The furniture consisted of shelves and cupboards of biscuit-boxes, a tarpaulin on the floor, a large-size bully-beef box as a table, a most luxurious camp-chair contributed by Hashmet Ali, and two stools cleverly made by the Corps carpenter from odds and ends. My valise on a layer of hay was the bed, and when rolled up was used as a fourth chair. The open side was fitted with curtains made of ration-bags, which could be let down to keep out the afternoon sun. It was a perfectly comfortable habitation, though a little cramped at times. The dimensions were not more than seven feet long and five feet wide, and about four feet deep.

[Major H M Alexander, On Two Fronts: Being the Adventures of an Indian Mule Corps in France and Gallipoli, London, no date, p.173-174]

Page 10

After the end of the August offensive to supply the new positions in the ranges, piers were built at North Beach, and the area beneath the Sphinx developed as a depot. Eventually, this new base became the main reserve store from which the Anzacs would be fed and supplied during the expected winter stay on the peninsula.

Other essential amenities were developed at North Beach. In the gullies leading into the ranges, Field Ambulances established their headquarters. Near the outposts, the British erected the 16th Casualty Clearing Station, and by early November the No 1 Australian Stationary Hospital was in operation beneath the Sphinx:

The hospital is now prepared for wounded. We have [an] operating room, X-Ray plant, surgical wards, and the whole is lighted with electricity. We are preparing tunnels into the hillside. The hospital gets occasional shells, but we cannot blame the Turks, as we are in the midst of guns and ammunition dumps.

[War Diary, No 1 Australian Stationary Hospital, quoted in A G Butler, Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services, 1914-1918, Gallipoli, Palestine and New Guinea, Vol 1, p.368]

Eventually, North Beach boasted the Anzac post office and a YMCA where soldiers could buy small luxury items. Sergeant Cyril Lawrence remembered North Beach as a dangerous and exposed area, where one went north via the 'Long Sap'. Returning from leave, he was amazed at the transformation:

A Post Office, eh! Eighty feet long, twelve feet high, and twenty-four feet wide. Some building! Windows, doors and a counter, too. Crikey, they are coming on in these parts.

[Sir R East (ed), The Gallipoli Diary of Sergeant Lawrence of the Australian Engineers—1st AIF, 1915, Melbourne, 1981, p.111]

Page 11

On 13 November 1915, there arrived at Williams' Pier, North Beach, Anzac's most illustrious official visitor—Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, Commander in Chief of the British Army. Kitchener had come to assess the military situation on the peninsula for himself. As a result of his inspection, it was decided that all British and Dominion forces should be withdrawn before the onset of winter.

During the phased evacuation of Anzac between late November and the night of 19-20 December, the North Beach piers became major embarkation points. Just before the final stage of the evacuation fires broke out at the North Beach depot. It was a scene captured by Hore in his painting 'Finis' and by Australia's official historian, Charles Bean, in words:

An event which for a moment appeared likely to put the enemy on the qui vive [alert] was an accident which occurred at the very end of the intermediate stage [of the evacuation]. At 1 o'clock on the morning of December 18th, through some cause never ascertained, the central block of the large supply-dump on the foreshore of North Beach caught fire. The conflagration, feeding on thousands of biscuits, bacon, and tinned meat, and on drums of oil, quickly enveloped the whole stack. The sky reddened, and a gun in the Olive Grove began to fire. There was a moment of keen anxiety, since any general burning of stores might have suggested to the enemy that an evacuation was in progress. The desultory nature of his shelling, however, made it clear—as was the case—that he supposed the blaze to have been caused by the fire of his own guns, and that he was merely shelling the spot in an endeavour to increase the conflagration. General Lesslie, as always, went to the centre of the trouble on the beach and, working with a company of the 21st Battalion, some light horsemen, and other bystanders, succeeded in confining the fire to a single stack.

[Charles Bean, The Story of Anzac, Vol II, Sydney, 1924, p.885]

The last boat to leave Anzac did so from North Beach. At 4 am on 20 December 1915, Colonel J Paton, the commander of the rearguard, declared the evacuation complete as the last lighter with troops pulled away into the dark. He decided to wait for 10 minutes for any stragglers. None came. At 4.10, Patons' party embarked, Paton himself being the last to leave.

Until recently, there was little at North Beach to indicate its role in the Gallipoli campaign. For those who know the Anzac story, the names of the war cemeteries along this part of the peninsula coast conjure up the desperate days of 1915 - New Zealand No 2 Outpost, Embarkation Pier, Canterbury and No 2 Outpost. The Fisherman's Hut, near where so many men of the 7th Battalion were killed, is still there and in use by a Turkish family.

Today, at the centre of North Beach, where the campaign in this area began, is the new Anzac Commemorative Site. Here, from the ceremonial area, one can gaze up at the Sphinx and at that great semi-circle of cliffs that confronted the Anzacs as they came to land on 25 April 1915. There is no better place along the coastline of Gallipoli at which to stop and ponder the significance of that distant battleground.

Dr Richard Reid

Dr Richard Reid is a historian for the Commemorations Branch, Department of Veterans' Affairs. He has been involved in projects relating to the Australian experience of war for over 25 years as a high school teacher, museum educator and historian. In 1993 Dr Reid was the Executive Officer on the Australian War Memorial's project team responsible for the return from France of the remains of an Australian Unknown Soldier to the Memorial's Hall of Memory.

Sketches at Gallipoli

The 44 Gallipoli drawings and sketches of Major Leslie Fraser Standish Hore, 8th Light Horse Regiment (Victoria) are in the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales at collection number PXE 702 and 703. Hore worked on small pieces of paper measuring in the main 13 x 17 cms or 12.5 x 55 cms. He does not seem at the time to have titled individual works but he wrote notes on them in pencil. These notes indicate place names and explain particular features of the scene. Later, Hore seems to have added, in pen, further annotations, some titles and his own initials. These works have lain largely unseen in the Mitchell Library since c.1919.

Leslie Fraser Standish Hore MC (1870-1935)

Leslie Fraser Standish 'George' Hore was born on 5 August 1870 in Murree in India. He was educated in England at Wellington College and Corpus Christi College, Oxford University. He worked as a solicitor and barrister in London and Hobart before joining the AIF (Australian Imperial Force) in 1914. His wife, Emily Josephine, remained in Hobart. On 25 February 1915, Hore left Australia as a captain with the 4th reinforcements for the 8th Australian Light Horse Regiment. He joined the regiment at Gallipoli on 26 May and was wounded at the Battle of the Nek on 7 August.

Writing to his mother from the hospital ship he described the destruction of the 8th Light Horse:

Truly we have been through the valley of the shadow of death as our Regiment has been cut to pieces and all our officers killed or wounded except two, out of eighteen officers present twelve were killed and four wounded... Our Colonel was killed, one Major killed the other wounded, the only Captain (myself) wounded and ten subalterns killed and three wounded leaving two officers not hit, killed or wounded, and about five percent of the men. And so perished the 8th Light Horse.

[LSF Hore, letter, in Cameron Simpson, Maygar's Boys: A biographical history of the 8th Light Horse Regiment AIF 1914-19, p.281]

At the Nek, Hore received a bullet wound through the bone of his right foot and another through his right shoulder: 'the latter only an inconvenience and the former a clean hole which ought to heal in about six weeks.' He rejoined his unit on 28 September.

While he was at Gallipoli, Hore sketched the men, the animals, the trenches and the terrain, documenting life at Anzac between June and December. Not surprisingly, a number of his sketches feature Indian soldiers.

Preferring to fight in France rather than stay with the Light Horse regiments in the Middle East, Hore accepted an offer on trial as Brigade Machine Gun Officer of the 6th Infantry Brigade. In March 1916 he travelled with the Brigade to France:

His knowledge of M.G.'s was summed up in three letters-nil, and at the time of his transfer he did not know a soul or a soldier in the brigade. But by the time the command of the 6th M.G. Coy. became vacant at Fleurbaix, it was obvious that Hore was the man to make individuals into a unit.

[Major-General Sir John Gellibrand, quoted in Hore's obituary, Reveille, November 1935]

Hore was promoted to Major at Pozieres in France and then to Lieutenant Colonel. On 18 June 1916, he was awarded the Military Cross (MC) for conspicuous gallantry at Pozieres. Later that year he was posted to the Machine Gun Training Depot at Grantham in England. From January 1917 until March 1918, he was Corps Machine Gun Officer for 1 Anzac (Corps) before returning to the 2nd Machine Gun Battalion. On 7 November 1917, Hore was mentioned in dispatches by Sir Douglas Haig. In February 1919, Lieutenant Colonel Hore left England for Australia in the Orca.

Shortly after his return he went to Rabaul, New Britain, as a Law Officer with the Naval and Military Expeditionary Force: he transferred to the civil administration when the military occupation came to an end.

Hore later resigned to take up a plantation in the Kavieng district on New Ireland where he remained until his death on 1 September 1935. He was buried in Kavieng cemetery with full military honours and six war veterans carried his casket to the grave.

In an obituary in Reveille, in November 1935, Major-General Sir John Gellibrand wrote:

To those who served with him he stands as an example of the Good Comrade. It was a pleasure to be with him, a comfort to work with him and now it is an abiding sorrow that his days have been numbered.

[Major-General Sir John Gellibrand, quoted in Hore's obituary, Reveille, November 1935]

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