Glossary of terms

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Admiralty a government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy in the Kingdom of Great Britain, from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire
airstrike a military attack involving aircraft
Allies in WW1, the powers of the Triple Entente (France, Russia and the UK) together with their allied nations; in WW2, a military coalition of the UK, US, Soviet Union and China together with their allied nations.
amnesty a period of time during which people can admit to a crime or give up weapons without being punished
amputation to surgically cut all or part of an arm or leg because it's seriously injured or diseased
anglicise to change something so that it resembles or becomes part of the English culture or language
Anglo-Celtic an inhabitant of Australia who was or whose ancestors were born in the British Isles
annex To seize and take control of land or another country
anti-Semitism hostility to and prejudice against Jewish people.
Anzac spirit the spirit of courage, endurance, and self-sacrifice thought to be typical of the Australian soldiers during the Gallipoli Campaign
Anzacs the soldiers serving with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC)
apartheid an historical political system in South Africa where people were divided into racial groups and kept apart by law
armistice an agreement between opposing governments or military forces to suspend conflict and discuss peace terms; a truce
armour tanks and other armoured military vehicles used in battle
armoury a place where weapons and military equipment are stored; or all the weapons and military equipment a country has
arms race a situation in which two countries or groups of countries are continually trying to get more and better weapons than each other
arsenal a large collection of weapons and military equipment
artillery large, powerful guns that are transported on wheels and used by an army, or the section of an army trained to use large, powerful guns - also 'artillerymen or gunners'
assassinate to murder a person as a political act
assault a strong attack made on an area held by the enemy
atrocity an extremely cruel act that typically involves physical violence or injury
autonomy the control or government of a country or group by itself rather than by others
auxiliary helping or supporting
Axis, the in World War II, the alliance of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan
ballast a substance used in ships and submarines to make them heavier and more stable, such as water, sand or iron
barracks a building or group of buildings used to accommodate military personnel
barrage continuous firing on an area with large guns, tanks or naval guns
battery a set of artillery pieces, guns or mortars kept together in one place
battery ranging an artillery method that attempts to identify the distance and range of enemy artillery from own artillery
bayonet a long sharp blade attached to the end of a rifle, intended as a weapon but used for other tasks, such as opening cans of rations
beachhead an area of land next to the sea or a waterway gained by an attacking force and from where it can try to advance inland
belligerent the countries or groups that are fighting each other in a war
billet a private house, barn or other accommodation that provides temporary lodging to soldiers during a war
bite and hold seize a small piece of territory within artillery range and hold it before trying to seize another small piece of territory
bivouac a temporary camp made by soldiers or mountain climbers
black market a system in which goods are sold and bought illegally, often due to a controlled or rationed market for such goods
blockade an action to block or cut off a nation's sea lines of communications, especially of an individual port by the use of sea power
bombardment attacking a place or target with continuous heavy gunfire or bombs
bonzer an old-fashioned Australian and New Zealand slang term for 'excellent'
breach to break through a heavily defended section of an enemy's defences
breastwork a temporary defensive work, such as a breast-high wall or mound of sandbags, also known as the 'rampart'; the 'parapet' is the top part of the breastwork
British describes an object or a subject (person, colony, dominion) belonging to either Great Britain, the United Kingdom or the British Empire
British Empire the United Kingdom and the former territories under its control, which reached its greatest extent at the end of World War I
bully beef tinned corned beef
bunker a place built with strong walls to protect it against heavy gunfire and bombing, usually underground
cacolet a seat or bed fitted to a camel or mule for carrying sick or wounded people
cadet a student or young person undergoing military training, usually before full entry to the services, especially for officer status
calibre the width of the inside of a gun's barrel
casualty a person who is injured or killed in a war
Casualty Clearance Post (CCP) a safe area within a conflict zone or disaster site, for triage and emergency treatment of casualties before they are transported elsewhere for further care.