Glossary of terms

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H
hardtack a hard, flat, saltless biscuit that formed part of navy or army rations
heave to to stop moving forward, especially a ship or vessel
heliograph an instrument with mirrors and a shutter used for sending messages in Morse code by reflecting the sun's rays
home front the country where civilians live
howitzer a large gun with a short barrel that fires shells high up into the air so that they drop down onto a target
I
in p
incendiary describes a weapon designed to cause a small fire; dropped together from aircraft to cause widespread damage
indemnity an amount of money paid to someone because of some damage or loss they have suffered
infantry soldiers who fight on foot
internee a person put in prison for political reasons, especially an enemy citizen during wartime or a terrorism suspect
internment the practice of putting people, usually civilians, in prison for political reasons, especially enemy foreign nationals during wartime or terrorism suspects
J
jaunty naval slang for the master-at-arms, a senior sailor responsible for good order and discipline
L
light case patient with lower-grade wounds or illness
lighter a flat-bottomed barge used for transporting cargo, especially to load or unload a ship
M
mackintosh a waterproof material made by cementing layers of cloth with rubber
mandate the authority to carry out a particular policy or task as a result of winning an election or vote
merchant ship a ship that is part of a country's commercial shipping fleet, involved in transporting goods or carrying passengers; also known as a 'merchantman'
militia a group that operates like an army but whose members are not professional soldiers
mine a bomb hidden in the ground or in water that explodes when something touches it
minelayer a warship or aircraft designed for the carrying and laying of mines
mobilisation to prepare a military forces for a conflict
mobilise to prepare a military forces for a conflict
Morse code a telegraph code used for sending messages
musketry the technique of using small arms
mustard gas a chemical weapon used during World War I that caused blistering, sore eyes and internal injuries
muzzle velocity the speed of a projectile as it leaves a gun's muzzle
N
neutral describes a country that does not support any belligerent in a war or conflict
no-man's-land an area of land that is not controlled by any side during a battle
O
obelisk a tall stone pillar built to commemorate a person or an important event
objective a place or position towards which forces are directed
occupation the control of a territory by a foreign military power
offensive a carefully planned attack made by a large formation or group of soldiers
Order of Battle the units, formation and equipment of a military force; might include its identification, strength and command structure, and the disposition of the personnel
Ottoman Empire the former Turkish empire in Europe, Asia and Africa, from the late 13th century until the end of World War I
outflank to go around the flank of an opposing army by moving past it so it can be attacked from the side
outpost a small group of buildings used for military purposes in a distant part of the country or in a foreign country
P
palliasse a straw-filled mattress
parapet a low wall along the edge of a tall structure, such as a bridge or roof
periscope a vertical tube inside a submarine that lets a person see above the surface of the water
pillbox a small building made of concrete used to defend a place in a battle
pinnace a small boat carried on a large ship, used to carry goods and people from the ship to the shore
plateau a large area of high and fairly flat land
plebiscite a direct vote by the people of a country or region in which they say whether they agree or disagree with a particular policy
prisoners of war a person who is held captive by a belligerent power, such as their enemy, during or after an armed conflict
promontory a cliff or high point of land that points out into the sea
Protection Acts state-based laws of the 1800s and 1900s that forced Indigenous Australians to live under the control of a legal protector who managed many aspects of their lives, such as employment and marriage
Protestant a Christian who belongs to the branch of the Christian church that separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th century
protocol a system of rules about the correct way to act in formal situations
Q
quarantine
R
rating a junior enlisted member of a navy who is not a warrant officer or commissioned officer
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